Tetanus

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What is Tetanus?

Tetanus is a bacterial disease which is acquired through exposure to the spores of the bacterium Clostridium tetani which are universally present in the soil. The disease is caused by the action of apotent neurotoxin produced during the growth of the bacteria in dead tissues, e.g. in dirty wounds or in the umbilicus following non-sterile delivery. Tetanus is not transmitted from person toperson. A person usually becomes infected with tetanus when dirt enters a wound or cut. Tetanus germs are likely to grow in deep puncture wounds caused by dirty nails, knives, tools, wood splinters, and animal bites.

What are the symptoms of Tetanus?

Tetanus is characterized by muscle spasms, initially in the jaw muscles. As the disease progresses, mild stimuli may trigger generalized tetanic seizure-like activity,

What is the treatment for Tetanus?

Tetanus antitoxin available which is prepared from hyper immunized animals (Equines) with tetanus toxoid / toxin. Plasma obtained from hyperimmunized horses is enzyme refined, purified and concentrated. The tetanus antitoxin has specific antitoxin globulins which neutralize the toxin formed by Clostridium tetani, the causative organism of tetanus infection.

How can you prevent Tetanus?

Tetanus can be prevented by the administration of tetanus toxoid, which induces specific antitoxins. To prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, tetanus toxoid needs to be given to the mother before or during pregnancy, and clean delivery and cord care needs to be ensured. Tetanus toxoid vaccine is available as single toxoid (TT), combined with diphtheria toxoid (DT) or low-dose diphtheria toxoid (Td), and combined with diphtheria and pertussis vaccines (whole pertussis wP or acellular pertussis aP) (DTwP, DTaP, or TdaP).