Snake Venom Antiserum (African) is supplied as freeze dried powder in glass vials. Water for Injection is supplied in 10 ml vials. Snake Venom Antiserum is also supplied as 10 ml liquid in glass vials.
VINS – Snake Venom Antiserum (Central Africa)
Polyvalent Snake Venom Antiserum (Central Africa) is prepared from hyper-immunised equines against the venoms of the corresponding venomous snakes, namely:
- Gaboon Viper (Bitisgabonica rhinoceros): 0.60 mg
- Russell’s Viper (Vipera russelli): 0.60 mg
- Saw-scaled Viper (Echis carinatus): 0.45 mg
Plasma obtained from the hyper-immunized equines is enzyme refined, purified and concentrated. Each mL of the Snake Venom Antiserum (after reconstitution to 10 mL for lyophilised form) neutralizes not less than the following quantities of venoms when tested in mice:
Gaboon Viper 0.60 mg
Russell’s Viper 0.60 mg
Saw scaled Viper 0.45 mg
Snake envenomation is serious and could be life threatening.
The consequences of the action of snake venoms vary considerably based on the group to which the particular venom belongs. This, in turn depends upon the composition of the venom. In envenomation by viperid and crotalid snakes, venom (Cytotoxic) breaks down tissues destroying the red blood cells, e.g. Gaboon viper, Russell’s viper and Saw scaled viper.
In cases of viper envenomation (Gaboon viper, Russell’s viper and Saw scaled viper) the venom is characterized by a low content of neurotoxins, but large quantities of cytotoxins and these being proteins of high molecular weight, diffuse slowly within the tissues, hence they initially cause severe symptoms of poisoning in the region of the bite. Consequently, local symptoms are prominent and severe. There is great and persistent pain and intensive swelling at the bite site. The venom of the viper contains several enzymes which may possibly act synergistically to produce shock, spontaneous hemorrhages in the organs and tissues, acute necrosis and death. There is constant and incessant oozing of blood from the bite site. Sloughing too occurs permitting other infections.
The venom has a toxic effect on many different types of cells causing destruction of cell membranes. The constitutional symptoms are, therefore, characterized by hemorrhages, both external and internal. Hemorrhages in the abdomen are responsible for pain, tenderness and vomiting. Death is due to heart failure, but there is no paralysis.